ACCRUED INTEREST: The amount of interest that is earned but unpaid since the last interest payment date.
ADJUSTABLE RATE NOTE: (See Floating Rate Note)
AGENCY SECURITIES: (See U. S. Government Agency Securities)
ASKED PRICE: The price at which securities are offered from a seller.
ASSET BACKED SECURITIES (ABS): Securities collateralized with consumer receivables, such as automobile loans, credit card receivables, or home equity loans, which are owned by the issuer, but placed with a trustee for the benefit of the investor.
BANKERS ACCEPTANCE (BA): A negotiable money market instrument issued primarily to finance international trade. These are time drafts in which a bank "accepts" as its financial responsibility to pay the principal at maturity even if the importer does not. In essence, these are bank obligations collateralized by goods being snipped between an exporter and an importer.
BASIS POINT: When a yield is expressed as 7.32%, the digits to the right of the decimal point are known as basis points. One basis point equals 1/100 of one percent. Basis points are used more often to describe changes in yields on bonds, notes and other fixed-income securities.
BID PRICE: The price at which a buyer offers to buy a security.
BOOK ENTRY: The system, maintained by die Federal Reserve, by which most money market securities are "delivered" to an investor's custodian bank. The Federal Reserve maintains a computerized record of the ownership of these securities, and records any changes in ownership corresponding to payments made over the Federal Reserve wire (delivery versus payment). These securities do not receive physical certificates.
BOOK VALUE: The original cost of the investment, plus accrued interest and amortization of any premium or discount.
BROKER: A broker brings buyers and sellers together and is compensated for his/her service.
CALLABLE BONDS: Bonds which may be redeemed by the issuing company prior to the maturity date.
CAPITAL GAIN/LOSS: The profit or loss realized from the sale of a capital asset.
CERTIFICATE OF DEPOSIT (CD or NCD): A deposit of funds at a bank for a specified period of time that earns interest at a specified rate. Commonly known as "CDs" or "negotiable CDs."
COLLATERAL: Securities or cash pledged by a borrower to secure repayment of a loan or repurchase agreement. Also, securities pledged by a financial institution to secure deposits of public moneys.
COMMERCIAL PAPER (CP): Short-term unsecured promissory notes issued by corporations for maturities of 270 days or less.
CONSUMER RECEIVABLE-BACKED BONDS: (See Receivable-Backed Securities)
COUPON: The rate at which a bond pays interest.
CURRENT YIELD: The annual income from an investment divided by the current market value. Since the mathematical calculation relies on the current market value rather than the investor's cost, current yield is unrelated to the actual return the investor will earn if the security is held to maturity.
CUSTODIAN: A bank or other financial institution that keeps custody of stock certificates and other assets.
DEALER: A dealer, as opposed to a broker, acts as a principal in all transactions, buying and selling for his own account.
DELIVERY VERSUS PAYMENT (DVP): Delivery of securities with a simultaneous exchange of money for the securities.
DERIVATIVE: A security whose interest rate of principal amount may vary and are determined by a market index or a combination of market indexes.
DISCOUNT: The difference between the par value of a bond and the cost of the bond, when the cost is below par. Some short-term securities, such as Treasury bills and bankers acceptances, are known as discount securities. They sell at a discount from par, and return the par value to the investor at maturity without additional interest. Other securities, which have fixed coupons trade at a discount when the coupon rate is lower than the current market rate for securities of that maturity and/or quality.
DIVERSIFICATION: An investment principle designed to spread the risk in a portfolio by dividing investments among different sectors, industries and companies.
DOLLAR-WEIGHTED AVERAGE MATURITY: A calculation that expresses the "average maturity" of an investment portfolio using each investment's maturity weighted by the size of that investment.
FEDERAL FUNDS RATE: Interest rate at which banks lend federal funds to each other.
FEDERAL OPEN MARKET COMMITTEE (FOMC): This committee sets Federal Reserve guidelines regarding purchases and sales of government securities in the open market as a means of influencing the volume of bank credit and money.
FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM: A U.S. centralized banking system which has supervisory powers over the 12 Federal Reserve banks and about 6,000 member banks.
FIXED-INCOME SECURITIES: Securities \which return a fixed income over a specified period.
FLOATING RATE NOTE: A debt security whose interest rate is reset periodically (monthly, quarterly, annually) and is based on a market index (e.g. Treasury bills, LIBOR, etc.).
INTEREST: The amount earned while owning a debt security, generally calculated as a percentage of the principal amount.
LIQUIDITY: The speed and ease with which an investment can be converted to cash.
LOCAL AGENCY: County, city, city and county, including a chartered city or county, school district, community college district, public district, county board of education, county superintendent of schools, or any public or municipal corporation.
MARK-TO-MARKET: The market valuation for every security in a portfolio used in determining Net Asset Value (NAV).
MARKET RISK: The risk that changes in overall market conditions or interest rate may adversely affect current market prices.
MARKET VALUE: The price at which a security is trading and could presumably be purchased or sold.
MATURITY: The date upon which the principal or stated value of an investment becomes due and payable.
MEDIUM TERM NOTES (MTN): Debt securities issued by a corporation or depository institution with a maturity ranging from nine months to five years. The term "medium-term notes" refers to the time it takes for an obligation to mature, and includes other corporate debt securities originally issued for maturities longer than five years, but which have now fallen within the five year maturity range. MTNs issued by banks are also called "bank notes."
MONEY MARKET: The market in which short term debt instruments (Treasury bills, discount notes, commercial paper, bankers acceptances, etc.) are issued and traded.
MONEY MARKET MUTUAL FUNDS: An investment company that pools money from investors and invest in a variety of short-term money market instruments. The Net Asset Value (NAV) of these funds should remain at $1.00; however, it is not guaranteed.
MOODY'S INVESTORS SERVICE, INC: (See Nationally Recognized Rating Services)
MUNICIPAL DEBT: Issued by public entities to meet capital needs.
NATIONALLY RECOGNIZED RATING SERVICES: Firms that review the creditworthiness of the issuers of debt securities, and express their opinion in the form of letter ratings (e.g. AAA, AA, A, BBB, etc.) The primary rating agencies include Standard & Poor's Corporation; Moody's Investor Services, Inc.; Fitch Investors Service; Duff & Phelps Investment Service; Thompson BankWatch and International Bank Credit Analyst.
NEGOTIABLE CD: (See Certificates of Deposit)
NET ASSET VALUE (NAV): A per-share valuation of a mutual fund based on total assets minus total liabilities.
NON CALLABLE: Bond that is exempt from any kind of redemption for a stated time period.
OFFER PRICE: The price asked by a seller of securities.
PAR VALUE: The amount of principal which must be paid at maturity. Also referred to as the face amount of a bond, normally quoted in $1.000 increments per bond.
PHYSICAL DELIVERY: The delivery of an investment to a custodian bank in the form of a certificate and/or supporting documents evidencing the investment (as opposed to "book entry" delivery).
PORTFOLIO: A group of securities held by an investor.
PREMIUM: The difference between the par value of a bond and the market value of the bond, when the market value is above par.
PRICE RISK: The risk that the price of a bond sold prior to maturity will be less than the price at which the bond was originally purchased.
PRIMARY DEALER: A group of government securities dealers who submit daily reports of market activity and positions and monthly financial statements to the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, and are subject to its informal oversight.
PRIME RATE: The interest rate banks charge the biggest borrowers with the best credit ratings.
PRINCIPAL: The face value or par value of an investment.
PSA MASTER REPURCHASE AGREEMENT: A written contract covering all future transactions between the parties to repurchase agreements that establishes each party's rights in the transactions.
PURCHASE DATE: See "Trade Date"
REINVESTMENT RISK: The risk that coupon payments (or other payments received) cannot be reinvested at the same rate as the initial investment.
RECEIVABLE-BACKED SECURITIES: Securities collateralized with consumer receivables, such as automobile loans, credit card receivables, or home equity loans, which are owned by the issuer, but placed with a trustee for the benefit of the investor.
RECEIVABLE PASS-THROUGH CERTIFICATE: A debt obligation that is backed by a portfolio of receivables, normally issued by a bank of financial institution. The interest and principal of the obligation is paid out of the cash flow generated by die receivables portfolio.
REGISTERED STATE WARRANT: A short-term obligation of a state governmental body issued in anticipation of revenue.
REPURCHASE AGREEMENT (RP OR REPO): The purchase of securities, on a temporary basis, with the seller's simultaneous agreement to repurchase the securities at a later date at a specified price that includes interest for the buyer's holding period. In essence, this is a collateralized investment whereby the security "buyer" lends the "seller" money for the period of the agreement.
RULE G-37 OF THE MUNICIPAL SECURITIES RULEMAKJNG BOARD: Federal regulations to sever any connection between the making of political contributions and the awarding of municipal securities business.
SAFEKEEPING: A service to bank customers whereby securities are held by the bank in the customer's name.
SECURITIES & EXCHANGE COMMISSION (SEC): The federal agency responsible for supervising and regulating the securities industry.
SETTLEMENT DATE: The date on which the purchase or sale of securities is executed. For example, in a purchase transaction, the day securities are physically delivered or wired to the buyer in exchange for cash is the settlement date.
STANDARD & POOR S CORPORATION: (See Nationally Recognized Rating Services)
SUPRANATIONAL: An entity formed by two or more central governments through international treaties, for the purpose of promoting economic development for member countries. Two examples of supranational institutions are the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) and the Inter-American Development Bank.
THIRD-PARTY CUSTODIAL AGREEMENT: (See Custodian)
TRADE DATE: The date and time corresponding to an investor's commitment to buy or sell a security.
U. S. GOVERNMENT AGENCY SECURITIES: Debt securities issued by U. S. Government sponsored enterprises and federally related institutions. These government agencies include: Federal Home Loan Banks (FHLB); Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC, or "Freddie Mac"); Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA, or "Fannie Mae"); Federal Farm Credit Banks (FFCB); Resolution Trust Corporation (RTC); and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA).
U.S. TREASURY SECURITIES: Securities issued by the U. S. Treasury and backed by the full faith and credit of the United States. Treasuries are considered to have no credit risk, and are the benchmark for interest rates on all other securities in the U.S. and overseas. The Treasury issues both discounted securities and fixed coupon notes and bonds.
Treasury bills: non-interest-bearing discount securities with maturities under one year issued by the U. S. Treasury to finance the national debt.
Treasury notes: interest-bearing obligations of the U. S. Treasury with maturities ranging from two to ten years from date of issue.
Treasury bonds: interest-bearing obligations issued by the U. S. Treasury with maturities that range from ten to thirty years from date of issue.
VARIABLE RATE NOTE:(See Floating Rate Note)
YIELD: The annual rate of return on a debt investment computed as though held to maturity expressed in %.
YIELD TO MATURITY (YTM): The rate of return earned on an investment considering all cash flows and timing factors: interest earnings, discounts, and premiums above par.
ZERO-COUPON BONDS/U.S. TREASURY STRIPS: A bond which represents ownership of a single coupon or principal payment due on a U.S. Treasury bond. "Zeros" or "strips" mature at face value at a specified date in the future and make no payments until that date. They always sell at a discount from face value.